Alveolus – a socket in the jaw that holds the roots of teeth.
Alveolitis (alveolus pain) – inflammation of the alveolus of extracted tooth. Is a complication of tooth extraction surgery. Most frequently is seen after complicated tooth extraction .The cause of its occurrence- the lack of a blood clot formed in the socket, resulting in interference with the normal processes of healing. (quite a common opinion – that an infection has been introduced).
Apex locator – is an electronic device used to determine the position of the apical foramen and thus determine the length of the root canal space from the change in resistance to an electrical current. Shows the canal length, in millimetres, indicates the apex point.
Arc – the active part of the apparatus through the activation of which is the movement of teeth is done. B
Braces – is an orthodontic element, glued to the front surface of the tooth to hold the arc. It can be made of metal, plastic, ceramic, sapphire, gold, or fluorescent.
Bracket system – is a non-removable orthodontic device, which consists of a supporting part – the rings and braces, fixed to the teeth and the active part – the arc, with which the movement of teeth in three planes is carried out.
Bruxism – is characterised by the involuntary, uncontrolled grinding of the teeth at night (sometimes during the day). Most often is accompanied by increased abrasion and gradual loss of enamel from the chewing surface.
Bar clasp – retained prosthesis is attached to the abutment teeth with special hooks
Bar clip prosthesis with attachments – is fixed with special clips (so called attachments) to metal-ceramic crowns, which are placed over the abutment teeth. This method of fastening enables to get a reliable fixation of the prosthesis and a good cosmetic result (locks are not visible because they are inside the prosthesis).
Bar prosthesis – a partial denture, which consists of artificial teeth and artificial gums. In the clasp instead of a plate a thin metal graceful arc is used, thanks to which a patient more easily get used to the prosthesis.
Bridge – this is a fixed structure, consisting of several metal-ceramic crowns and artificial teeth, which is fixed on the supporting teeth and fills the missing teeth between them.
Caries – the disease of hard dental tissues, occurring under the obligatory presence of microorganisms, results in the formation of its functional and aesthetic defects.
Casts – imprints of teeth, whereby special material is used. With the casts diagnostic models are moulded.
Closed curettage of the tooth-gingival pockets – is the technique designed to remove the deep subgingival calculus and inflamed tissue in the tooth area.
Complete denture – a denture, which consists of 14 artificial teeth located on a wide plate made of plastic in the colour of patient’s gums. This prosthesis is used in the complete absence of teeth on the upper or lower jaw.
Composite – the type of plastic with a high content of inorganic filler.
Curettage (sockets) – curettage (cleaning out) the tooth alveolar sockets from the granulations, chronic foci of infection, foreign bodies (filling materials, tooth splinters, etc.)
Cyst – a cavity in the jaw bone around the tooth root.
Cysteoctomy (removal of the cyst) – surgery to remove a cyst.
Dental dam – a special rubber sheet that isolates a tooth from the rest of the mouth and saliva.
Dental plaque – hard and soft microbial plaque, tightly seating on the tooth surface due to inadequate hygiene. It is a primary factor in the development of inflammation in periodontal tissues.
Depoforez – the method of introducing into the area of the root apex of the copper ions possessing anti-inflammatory properties.
Diagnostic model – the plaster models of teeth that are cast for individual mould.
Distal occlusion – an anomaly, characterized by extension the upper teeth forward or the lower teeth back.
Drainage – the rubber or silicone strip that is placed in the incision of soft tissue to prevent its closure, is set to improve outflow of fluid.
Dystopic tooth – a tooth, which occupies incorrect position in the dentition (slope, outside the dentition).
Dissection – the excision of dental hard tissues using the tools, dental drills or a laser.
Deepening of the vestibule of mouth – an operation that allows the movement of soft tissue to create an indentation in the vestibule of mouth.
Enamel hypoplasia – a disorder of normal development and maturation of enamel in the process of forming tooth provoked by infectious and other diseases of the mother during pregnancy or child, manifested in the form of dull spots or roughness.
Excision of the “hood”– excision of part of the mucous membrane over the erupting tooth. As a rule, periodically food, microorganisms settle under the “hood” and inflammation gradually develops.
Exudate – Cluster of tissue fluid (serous) may contain microbial products (purulent), or blood (hemorrhagic).
Filling correction – the removal, using the tools of the roughness and the overhanging edges of the filling material.
Facebow – an additional orthodontic device, used together with braces to prevent displacement of forward and backward movement of the posterior teeth.
Flap surgery – the surgery performed to remove inflamed underlying gum tissue or tartar by an open access: loosening of the gum from bone, removal of modified tissue and suturing of the gums.
Fissure – a natural sulcus (deepening) in the solid tissues of the crown (enamel). Fissures are difficult to expose to hygienically clean and, which leads to the accumulation of microbes and subsequently to the formation of carious defect.
Floss (dental floss) – means of hygiene for cleaning between the teeth.
Granuloma – the limited area of inflamed tissue in root apex. Is a chronic infection foci, located deep in the bone.
Gingivitis – the inflammation of gum tissue without the involvement of bone tissue.
Gingivectomy: The surgical removal of gum tissue.
Gutta-percha – the special material for filling canals. Is <cold> in the form of pins or <hot> when introduced into the canal in the heated state.
Intra-root post – the rod, which is inserted into the root canal to improve the fixation of fillings or tooth crown.
Intraoral incision – a cut of soft oral cavity tissues with acute inflammation (for example, if a patient has an “abscess”).
Immobilisation of a tooth – the tooth immobilisation with tires, wire, dental material.
Implant – this is usually a titanium rod that is implanted in the jaw and serves as the basis for the installation of metal-ceramic crowns or other prostheses.
Ligature – a thin metal wire or elastic ring, whereby the arc is fixed at braces.
Lingual – a lingua means tongue. Braces which is fastened at the inner side of teeth, is referred to as lingual.
Local anaesthesia – involves the injection or application of an anaesthetic drug into the soft tissue to numb one or more teeth.
Lockjaw – difficulty (incomplete) mouth opening as a result of spasm (contraction) of masseter muscles.
Malocclusion – is a misalignment of teeth and/or incorrect relation between the teeth of the two dental arches.
Occlusion – the closure of the upper and lower dentition.
Oedema (flux) – the accumulation of fluid in the soft tissues as a result of injury or inflammation.
Open curettage of the teeth-gum pockets – the removal of deep-lying dental plaque and inflamed tissue from the gums incision done by open access, followed by polishing the surface of the tooth root and suturing of the gums. This is done in the case of deep tissue damage surrounding the tooth, extensive and deep inflammatory process.
Open bite – an anomaly, characterised by the lack of closure between the upper and lower teeth, usually in the anterior part.
Orthodontics – branch of dentistry that deals with prevention, diagnosis and treatment of dentoalveolar deformities.
Ortopantomogram (OPG) – is a panoramic scanning dental X-ray of the upper and lower jaw, as well as the status of temporary and permanent teeth, panoramic radiograph of dentition, giving the picture of temporomandibular joint; maxillary sinuses. Is used for the diagnosis and treatment planning.
Orthopedics – the branch of dentistry dealing with compensation for defects in the visible part of the teeth, in the absence of one or more teeth, at full or partial loss of teeth.
Osteomyelitis – inflammation of bone and bone marrow. There are acute (clinical picture is similar to the acute periodontitis), and chronic conditions. It requires hospital intensive care.
Obturation – filling of the root canal with a sealing material (paste, gutta-percha).
Overbite – an anomaly, characterised by a significant overlap of the mandibular (more than half a crown) be the maxillary.
Partial removable plate denture – a denture, which consists of artificial teeth, arranged on a plate made of special plastic in the colour of your gums.
Periodontitis – an inflammation of the tissues surrounding the tooth, with the involvement of bone tissue.
Parodontics – the branch of dentistry which studies the norm and pathology of the tissues surrounding a tooth.
Pathological abrasion – the process of increased abrasion of tooth enamel, leading to a decrease in the height of the clinical crown, sometimes it is quite profound. Occurs at the loss of teeth, the causes are not very clear yet.
Periosteum – a thin, dense layer of connective tissue covering the upper jaw bone.
Prosthetic bridge – this is a fixed structure, consisting of several metal-ceramic crowns and artificial teeth. It is fixed either on the implants (i.e., a titanium rod implanted into the jaw) either on the implant, and abutment teeth, and restores the missing teeth between them.
Pericoronitis – inflammation of the soft tissues due to the difficulties arising with the eruption of a tooth. More commonly is associated with the last molars, due to lack of space for a full eruption of the tooth, which leads to injury of soft tissues in biting, abnormality of self-cleaning processes and inflammation.
Periodontium – the complex of tissue from the cells and fibres holding the tooth in the bone socket.
Periodontitis – the inflammation of periodontal tissues. Causes: trauma, a complication of tooth decay.
Periostitis – an inflammation of the periosteum, with the formation of serous at first, then purulent between the bone and periosteum. Is a complication of periodontitis. Characterised by the appearance of a strongly pronounced soft tissue swelling, pain, significant changes in overall condition. Requires urgent surgical care. periostotomiyu, general therapy. Often there is temporary incapacity for 3-5 days.
Periostotomy – dissection of the periosteum with a partial detachment from the bone. Often accompanied by the installation of a drain.
Perforation – the hole, connection between various points. Common to refer to the perforations of floor of tooth cavity, its walls or root. Arises as a consequence of caries process or a complication after the mechanical treatment of dental tissues.
Pulp – the neurovascular bundle, which is in the cavity of a tooth – pulp chamber.
Pulpitis – the disease of the dental pulp (tooth nerve) of inflammatory origin, occurring most often with the presence of microorganisms and their metabolic products or as a result of trauma.
Pulpectomy – the removal of nerve of the tooth done to eliminate the inflammation or injury.
They are necessary for accurate measurement and selection of items of medical equipment.
Polishing of fillings – the tooth fillings smoothing and fitting it to the patient’s bite.
Post and core – cast construction, which is individually fabricated in laboratory. It is inserted into the canals of the tooth root to further restoration of the tooth crown.
Radiovisiograph – a special system designed for the dental X-ray imaging. As a device that takes X-rays from the X-ray machine an electronic sensor or a matrix is used, with subsequent conversion to a computer in the monitor image. Allows up to 10 times lower dose for a patient and make the X-ray examination practically safe.
Rebasing denture – adjustment to the denture surface to the oral cavity, changing from extended prosthetic wear, by applying a new layer of plastic.
Reconstruction – change in the shape of the tooth, by applying the filling material over it.
Reinforcement – creating the framework for the root or crown seals made of a special material that compensates lacks of filling and distribution of the load over a larger area. For example, the use of fibre optic pin at canal fillings.
Removable device with additional active elements – the removable orthodontic structure, which consists of: a plastic base, adjacent to the mucosa of the mouth and teeth, and welded it screws, springs, wire parts, performing the moving of the teeth.
Removable dentures for children – the removable orthodontic structure for replacement for children’s milk or permanent teeth prematurely removed.
Resection of root apex – the operation which is carried out to remove the source of chronic infection in the root apex.
Restoration – the repair of tooth shape, lost during the caries process or injury.
Replantation of a tooth – the tooth extraction to remove the source of chronic infection and its subsequent change to its place (in its own socket).
Reposition of a tooth – to set the dislocated tooth to its original position.
Retainer (plate) – the device which fastens the result of orthodontic tooth movement. This may be a plastic removable device or fixed metal one, pasted over the inner side of teeth. Wearing time – from several months or years to life.
Retained tooth – impacted tooth is located in the jaw bone.
Retraction of the gums – the exposed portion of the tooth root.
Sinus tract – the canal in the jaw bone that connects the granuloma or a cyst with the oral cavity.
Sinus lift – surgery on the maxillary sinus, which resulted in increased volume of alveolar bone for the subsequent introduction of the implant.
Scaling – The meticulous removal of plaque and calculus from tooth the crown or root of the tooth.
Sealing (encapsulation) of fissures – medical procedure designed to introduce a filling material into the fissures of a tooth for therapeutic prevention of carious defect.
Simple removable device (removable plate) – the removable orthodontic dstructure, which consists of a plastic base, adjacent to the mucous membranes of the mouth and teeth.
Single-ceramic crown – it is a crown, which is made of ceramic and cemented to the previously treated tooth.
Single-metal crown – is a crown, which consists of a metal frame lined with ceramics.
Splinting teeth – the removal of tooth mobility by connecting it with others.
Tartar – a solid, lime formation on the surface of the tooth. Predominantly located in the cervical region of teeth adjacent to the excretory ducts of salivary glands. Amount of tartar depends on the state of mineral metabolism in the body and the hygienic condition of the oral cavity.
Tooth-gingival pocket – the space between the gum and tooth.
Tray – removable structure made of special plastic with different degrees of hardness. It covers the teeth from all sides, joining them into a single unit. This allows to: protect them from excessive abrasion (overnight wear), to strengthen them at increased mobility (parodontosis), protect against stroke (Boxing Mouthpiece), etc.
Transitional dentition – a period when milk teeth are replaced by permanent teeth among children aged from 5-6 to 12-13 years.
Veneer – a non-removable elegant ceramic or composite facing placed over the outer surface of teeth that are broken, darkened or misplaced.
Veneers placement (direct veneers placement) – Cosmetic (aesthetic) the imposition of filling material on the lip surface of the front teeth.
Wedge defect – the destruction of dental hard tissues at its base (neck), which arises as a result of chronic overload, often in bruxism.
Whitening – changing tooth coloration to make them brighter. The procedure to bleach teeth uses oxidising agents such as hydrogen peroxide.